Friends, in today’s post we will discuss History of computers in detail. And will know how modern computer is developed today.
(Origin and development of computer)
Information – Facts derived from analysis and compilation based on data utility.
The broad form of the word computer is as follows-
(Charles Babbage’s differential engine)
Charles Babbage built a differential engine machine in 1822. This machine was equipped with gears and shafts, it was run by steam, after this, in 1833, Charles Babbage developed an analytical engine developed as a differential engine. It had the capability of storing instructions and results could also be printed automatically in Babbage’s analytical engine.
Babbage’s analytical engine became the basis of modern computers and so called the father of the computer, Charles Babbage. Ada Augusta of Babbage helped develop the calculation instructions in Analytical Engine, which is why Ada Augusta is credited with being the first programmer. A computer language was named after Ada.
- (Jacquard’s Loom) In 1801, the French Banquer Joseph invented the automatic design or patterned loom in clothes. This loom used to control the design of the cloth with a punchboard with cardboard holes. The presence or absence of holes on the punchcard was directed to the threads.
This loom contained a set of information instructions stored on the punchcard coded on the punchcard to allow the punchcard This set of instructions will act as a program whenever used.
(Hollerith Census Tabulator)
In 1890, the US Census was done by computer. Prior to 1890, census work was done in reciprocal ways. To carry out the census work, Hollerith built a machine in which the punchcard was operated by electrical. It took only three years to conduct the census with the help of that machine, which was very less. In 1886, the name of the tabulating machine company, manufactured by Hollerith, was changed to the Computer Tabulating Recording Company in 1911.
1. Abacus (The Abacus)
This is the oldest calculating machine in the world which was invented in Old Babylon.
2. Differential and Analytical- (A) British mathematician Charles Babbage invented both these engines. (B) The analytical engine was an automatic machine. (C) Charles Babbage is called the father of modern computer science for his contribution in the field of computers. The institute established by Charles Babbage in the field of computers is known as CBI.
3. A.B.C. (Atamasoft-Berry Computer) In 1939, scientists named John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry invented the first electronic digital computer in the world.
4. MARK-I-In 1940, Howard Aiken, a company and scientist named Mark-IBM (International Business Machine), invented the world’s first fully automated electrical mechanical calculator.
5. ENIAC (ENIAC – Electrical Numerical Integrator and Calculator) The first fully electronic computer, its invention (US) J.P. Eckert and John Muchali did.
6. UNIVAC (Univac – Universal Automatic Computer)
(1) This was the first computer which was used for commercial and other common tasks.
(2) It was developed in 1954 by (GEC) General Electric Corporation.
(EDSAC – Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator) This was the first stored program computer.
8. Apple-II –
This first commercial microcomputer was created in 1977. In 1970, Intel’s first micro-processor Intel 4004 was revolutionized in the field of microcomputer manufacturing.
Computer Generations and Development
⇒ Mechanical calculator – Blaise Pascal made this world’s first calculator in 1642 AD.
* Mark-1 – Due to calculation in seconds, it is called as fast counting machine.
**** Scientists have divided the computer generation into five parts based on the electronic equipment of the computer.
1. first Generation (1942 -55) used a diode valve vacuum tube in computers of this generation, it was called a diode. The first electronic computer (ENIAC) is the first generation computer. In this generation, programming was done in machine and assembly language. Machine language is based on 0 and 1 only. A computer’s understandable language in which a program is written is called a computer programming language. Such as -ENIAC, EDSAC, UNIVAC etc.
2. Second Generation (1955–64)
The main logical device in this generation of computers was the use of transistors in place of the vacuum tube.
* Magnetic cores were used in place of magnetic drums for memory.
⇒ Magnetic tape and disk were used for second memory storage in addition to punch cards.
High level language was invented in this generation. Such as – FORTRAN, COBOL etc. Common English letters were used in this language, which were much simpler than programming in the machine language. These were smaller in size than the first generation computers and the storage capacity and speed were also much higher. Examples – IBM, Univac-2
3. Third Generation (1964-75)
In this generation computers, IC is being replaced in place of transistor as an electronic device. [Integrated circuit] used. An ic In the transistor, resistor, capacitor, all three were included, due to which the size of the computer became very small.
* RAM’s discovery accelerated computer speed. Time sharing operating system developed.
⇒The operating system started being used in this generation of computers, due to which the internal work of the computer was automated. Started making and processing documents.
* New languages were used in high level languages. Such as – (Pascal) and (Basic – Beginners All Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) use and development in these languages.
– Small computers developed which were quite small in size. Example- IBM 360, PDP-8.
4. Fourth Generation (1975-89)
In this generation Large Scale I.C. (LSI) and Very Large Scale I.C. (VLSI) made possible. A small chip contained millions of transistors. Decreased in size. This chip was named a microprocessor. Development of Microprocessor M.E. Hauff did it in 1971. A computer with a microprocessor came to be known as a micro computer. The first microcomputer was created by a company called MITS.
* Memory of semiconductor or semiconductor material was used in place of core memory. Which was smaller in size and faster in speed. New software was created.
* Computer networks such as LAN (local area network) and WAN (wide area network) developed.
⇒ Personal computers developed.
* The development of GUI (graphical user interface) software made computer usage simpler.
⇒ Operating software like MS-DOS, MS-Windows, Apple-OS developed.
* High level language c developed.
5. fifth Generation (1989 to present)
development of ULSI (Ultra Large Scale Integration) further enhanced the functionality of the computer. Optical discs developed. The ability to think for itself is being created in this generation of computers. Computers are being made functional in every field.
In this generation, computers were created by connecting computers to the exchange of information, which was named as Internet. E-mail and WWW (World Wide Web) developed. Multimedia developed in this generation. The computer was named Desk Top, Lap Top, Palm Top due to its size. Examples- IBM Notebook, Pentium PC, Super Computer etc.
Next Generation Computers
1. Nano computers – Efforts are being made to develop very small and large capacity computers using nano tubes built at the nano level (10−9 m).
2. Quantum computer – It is based on quantum theory of light, in which quantum particles collect and process data. These particles reside in pairs and are called ‘Q bits’.
In this way, we can know about the history of computers and from this topic we also get to know how modern computers developed.